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50 Linux Commands Every Developer Should know

  •  ls –  list the files and directories in the current directory
    ls
    
  • cd – change the current directory
    cd dir_name
    
  • mkdir – create a new directory
    mkdir rohan
    
  • rmdir – remove a directory
    rmdir rohan
    
  • pwd – print the current working directory
    pwd
    
  • cp – copy files or directories
    #We will copy a file called example.txt from the current directory to a directory called backup
    cp example.txt backup/
    
  • mv – move or rename files or directories
    mv example.txt backup/
    
  • rm – remove files or directories
    rm example.txt
    
  • touch – create a new empty file or update the timestamp of an existing file
    touch shayan.txt
    
  •  cat – concatenate and display files
    cat example.txt
    
  • man – manual for a command
    man ls
    
  • htop – an interactive process viewer and system monitor
    htop
    
  • chmod – change the permissions of a file or directory
    # The first digit represents the owner of the file/directory
    # The second digit represents the group that the file/directory belongs to
    # The third digit represents all other users
    # 0 (no permission)
    # 1 (execute only)
    # 2 (write only)
    # 3 (write and execute)
    # 4 (read only)
    # 5 (read and execute)
    # 6 (read and write)
    # 7 (read, write, and execute)
    
    chmod 700 file.txt
    
  • chown – change the owner of a file or directory
    chown new_owner example.txt
    
  • tar – create or extract compressed archive files
    # x: extract files from an archive
    # t: list the contents of an archive
    # r: append files to an existing archive
    # z: use gzip compression
    # j: use bzip2 compression
    # cf: create file
    #xf: extract file
    tar cf archive.tar file1 file2 file3
    
  • gzip – compress files
    gzip file.txt
    
  • gunzip – decompress compressed files
    gunzip file.txt.gz
    
  • ssh – connect to a remote server securely
    ssh username@server_address
    
  • scp – securely copy files between systems
    scp myfile.txt user@remotehost:/home/user/
    
  • ping – test network connectivity
    ping 8.8.8.8
    
  • ifconfig – display or configure network interfaces
    ifconfig
    
  • netstat – display network connection information
    netstat
    
  • route – view or configure network routing tables
    route [options] [add/delete/show]
    
  • top – display system resource usage and processes
    top
    
  • ps – display information about running processes
    ps aux
    
  • kill – terminate a process
    kill [PID]
    
  • systemctl – control system services and settings
    # Start the nginx service
    systemctl start nginx
    
    # Check the status of the nginx service
    systemctl status nginx
    
    # Stop the nginx service
    systemctl stop nginx
    
  • service – control system services
    service apache2 start
    
  • useradd – add a new user to the system
    useradd harry
    
  • passwd – change the password for a user
    passwd harry
    
  • userdel – delete a user from the system
    userdel harry
    
  • su – switch user to become another user
    su john
    
  • sudo – execute a command as another user or with elevated privileges
    sudo
    
  • uptime – display system uptime and load average
    uptime
    
  • df – display disk space usage
    df
    
  • du – display disk usage by file or directory
    du
    
  • mount – mount a  file system
    sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb
    
  • umount – unmount a  file system
    sudo umount /mnt/usb
    
  • date – display or set the system date and time
    date
    
  • whoami – display the current user name
    whoami
    
  • which – locate a program or command in the system path
    ls
    
  • finger – displays all the information about user
    finger harry
    
  • uname – display system information
    uname
    uname -a
    
  • history – display a  list of previously executed commands
    history
    
  • echo – display text or variables to the console
    echo 'I need Tshirt from codeswear!'
    
  • tee – redirect output to both a file and the console
    $ ls | tee file.txt
    
  • locate – locate any file on the system
    locate file.txt
    
  • sort – sort lines of text in a file or input
    cat file.txt
    banana
    orange
    apple
    sort file.txt
    apple
    banana
    orange
    
  • uniq – remove duplicate lines from a file or input
    cat file.txt
    apple
    orange
    banana
    apple
    banana
    uniq file.txt
    apple
    orange
    banana
    
  • head/tail – display the first/last few lines of a file or input
    #display first 10 lines
    head file.txt
    
    #display last 10 lines
    tail file.txt
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